Root canal therapy is recommended for many reasons. For example, a fractured tooth with painful pulp exposure, or an abscessed, dead, or discolored tooth. In most cases, due to their strategic nature, the teeth that are chosen for root canal therapy are the canine teeth and the carnassial teeth (upper 4th premolar and lower 1st molar). However, any damaged tooth that has a healthy support structure (no periodontal disease) is a candidate for root canal therapy.

Vital pulp therapy is possible when an adult tooth has been fractured less than 48 hours or up to 2 weeks in an immature tooth. This procedure can preserve the tooth and allow continued maturation and strengthening of the tooth with time.

Crown reduction for traumatic malocclusion causing pain and discomfort when orthodontics is not an option.

When periodontal disease has destroyed one root but the remaining root is healthy, tooth hemisection is an option to preserve the function of the tooth.